10 1 discussion typical vs atypical development

Throughout this course, we have explored different aspects of development, and research has presented a variety of influences in the form of biological, social, emotional, and cognitive domains. At the end of nearly every chapter reading, a holistic position began to emerge that acknowledges the contribution by each domain. In our final discussion, reflect on whether a holistic approach is just as effective for accounting for atypical development as it is for typical development. Utilize examples from the course to support your position, or consider using an issue of atypical development to provide context (e.g., autism or antisocial behavior).

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In response to your peers, provide your own perspective on their position, utilizing evidence from the course.

To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.

AFTER RESPONDING TO THE INITIAL POST, PLEASE ALSO RESPOND TO THE FOLLOWING TWO STUDENTS REGARDING THE SAME TOPIC!


STUDENT ONE:

In our final discussion, reflect on whether a holistic approach is just as effective for accounting for atypical development as it is for typical development. Utilize examples from the course to support your position, or consider using an issue of atypical development to provide context (e.g., autism or antisocial behavior).

A holistic approach addresses the entire person, including their physical, mental, and emotional health, while considering social factors. Using a holistic approach can be a combination of conventional and alternative treatments (Shaffer & Kipp, 2014).

I did my final project on speech and language disorders. I believe in a holistic approach to speech and language therapeutic intervention. Holistic means that it takes into account the whole child or person, not just their speech output, or language skills, but why they are having these speech-language difficulties.

Typical Development

Speech and language developmental milestones are dependent on the age of the child. The child’s physician needs to have an understanding of these milestones to determine whether children have a delay in speech or language. Normal speech develops through stages of cooing, babbling, words, and word combinations, while normal language develops through stages of understanding and expressing more complicated concepts. Development of proficiency in vocabulary and language use depends profoundly on family and early school experiences. Families can help their children’s language development by telling stories, playing word games, reciting rhymes and songs, engaging in questions and conversation, and reading books together (Speech and Language Delay, 2018).

Atypical Development

Those children who do not meet the expected developmental milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential. Atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Some of the many conditions that can account for speech and language problems in children which can be; autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, childhood apraxia of speech, dysarthria, hearing loss after spoken language established, and hearing loss before onset of speech. These can be divided into primary speech and language problems, in which no other cause can be found and secondary speech and language problems, which are regarded as being caused by another condition (Speech and Language Delay, 2018).

Often the why of why we are who we are is not considered when planning speech therapy – what does it matter? It matters because this knowledge allows the practitioner to use a personal approach tailored to that individual. And that makes all the difference. Using a multi-modality therapy approach such as using auditory, visual stimulation, sensory integration, humor, trust, and love can create successful communication.

References

Shaffer, D.R. & Kipp, K. (2014). Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescent (9th ed.).

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Speech and Language Delay (2018). Family Doctor. American Academy of Family Physicians.

Retrieved from https://familydoctor.org/condition/speech-and-language-delay/

STUDENT TWO:

A holistic approach to child development seeks to simultaneously address the physical, emotional, relational, intellectual, and spiritual aspects of a child’s life. The importance of the Holistic Approach is that it Children learn different things at different stages, e.g. walking, talking, fine motor skills etc. Holistic development is the overall development of all areas of development in children.

To support holistic development take a child’s passion and turn it into a learning opportunity! Create a comfortable and safe environment for children to connect and be themselves in. Make it inviting with the use of color, child-friendly furniture, interest corners, and areas for individuals, small groups, and space for creative play. The biggest benefit of a holistic approach isn’t just about mental development, but it encompasses psychological, social and emotional growth. A holistic approach motivates children to learn about a subject. It instills curiosity and allows children to learn naturally and creatively. Holistic education places the child at the center of learning and seeks to develop multiple aspects of the pupil so that they can effectively engage with the world in which they live.

The development of face recognition can be disrupted either by atypical experience, such as by early visual deprivation, or atypical developmental constraints found in some developmental disorders. For example, “visual deprivation in early infancy due to congenital cataracts prevents the system from later developing configural recognition of faces” (Le Grand et al., 2004) and “atypical face encoding has been found in neuro-genetic disorders such as FragileX and Turner syndrome” (Garret, Menon, McKenzie & Reiss, 2004; Lawrence, Kuntsi, Coleman, Campbell, & Skuse, 2003). The following three developmental disorders bear particular relevance to the development of holistic processing in face recognition.

Garrett, A.S., Menon,V., MacKenzie K., Reiss, A. L. (2004). Here’s looking at you, kid: neural systems underlying face and gaze processing in fragile X syndrome. Archives in General Psychiatry, 61(3):281-8.

Lawrence, K., Kuntsi, J., Coleman, M., Campbell, R., Skuse, D. (2003). Face and emotion recognition deficits in Turner syndrome: a possible role for X-linked genes in amygdala development. Neuropsychology, 17, 39–49.

Le Grand, R., Mondloch, C. J., Maurer, D., & Brent, H. P. (2001). Early visual experience and face processing. Nature, 410(6831), 890.