philosophy writing 12

Each question write at least 150 words count.

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[1] According to James Rachels, one popular argument in favor of ethical egoism is that altruism is self-defeating. First, explain what ethical egoism is, and how it differs from common-sense morality. Second, in your own words explain the reasoning behind the argument that altruism is self-defeating. Third, explain why Rachels thinks that this argument runs into a serious problem.

[2] According to Hilde Lindemann, some feminists think that equality with menshould be the aim of feminism, whereas others argue that feminists should identify and affirm the positive features of femininitythat make women different from men. First, briefly explain the problems that Lindemann identifies with bothof these positions. Second, using an example,explain what it means to understand gender as a norm. Third, according to Lindemann, why do some feminists insist on distinguishing gender norms from biological facts about sexual difference?

[3] Virtue ethics is a normative ethical theory that differs in many ways from consequentialismand deontology. First, explain the basic idea behind virtue ethics (i.e., the main question it tries to answer, what virtues are, and why people should value the virtues). Second, explainthe problem of moral motivation (make sure to say how it poses a problem for consequentialism and Kantianism). Third, explain why virtue ethics is able to avoid this problem