biology lab 3 week quiz answer all multiple choose questions and regular questions with the correct answer

1-What carbohydrate energy storage molecule is found in animal liver and muscle cells?

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a.

starch

b.

cellulose

c.

a fatty acid

d.

glycogen

e.

cholesterol

2-The primary difference between the amino acids commonly found in proteins is in their:

a.

number of phosphate groups.

b.

number of carbonyl groups.

c.

number of asymmetric carbons.

d.

number of potassium groups.

e.

R or variable groups.

3-Which of the following is a purine base found in nucleotides?

a.

thymine

b.

guanine

c.

steroid

d.

cytosine

e.

uricil

4-What is the purpose of regulatory proteins?

a.

To strengthen and protect cells and tissues

b.

To defend against foreign invaders

c.

To catalyze a specific chemical reaction

d.

To control the expression of specific genes

e.

To store nutrients

5-Glucose and fructose are ____ because they have identical molecular formulas but their atoms are arranged differently.

a.

geometric isomers

b.

tertiary

c.

enantiomers

d.

structural isomers

e.

polar

6-Which description illustrates an amphipathic molecule?

a.

A phospholipid with both a hydrophobic end and a hydrophilic end

b.

A phospholipid with two hydrophobic ends

c.

A phospholipid with two polar ends

d.

A phospholipid with only one hydrophobic end

e.

A phospholipid with only one hydrophilic end

7-Identify three functions of proteins other than enzymes and briefly discuss or describe each.

8-What organic molecules is the primary structural component of cell membranes?

a.

adenine triphosphate

b.

glycogen

c.

phospholipids

d.

cellulose

e.

disaccharides

9-What does the term “functional group” mean in reference to the structure of organic molecules? Identify two types of functional groups and describe their chemical properties.

10-If you partially hydrogenate oleic acid, the resulting molecule most likely would:

a.

lose a carboxyl group.

b.

become soluble in water.

c.

have a double bond changed from cis to trans.

d.

lose a carbon atom.

e.

contain more double bonds.

Figure 3-1

11-What chemical process is represented in the accompanying figure?

a.

dehydration synthesis

b.

denaturation

c.

hydrolysis

d.

protein synthesis

e.

condensation

12-How many carbon sugars are there in a pentose sugar?

a.

two

b.

three

c.

five

d.

six

e.

eight

13-Unlike lipids, hydrophilic functional groups typically contain ____ atoms, which make them more soluble in water.

a.

oxygen

b.

nitrogen

c.

phosphate

d.

carbon

e.

hydrogen

Figure 3-1

14-The products of the process in the accompanying figure are:

a.

molecules of glycerol.

b.

monosaccharides.

c.

amino acids.

d.

representative of a glycoside linkage.

e.

enzymes

15-At which level of protein structure are peptide bonds most important?

a.

primary

b.

secondary

c.

tertiary

d.

quaternary

e.

globular

16-What group of molecules is represented in this structure?

a.

phospholipids

b.

triacylglycerols

c.

structural proteins

d.

polysaccharides

e.

polypeptides

17-A pyrimidine is a double-ring molecule.
__________________

True

False

18-What is the purpose of molecular chaperones?

a.

To transfer an amino acid

b.

To strengthen the tertiary structure of a protein

c.

To straighten other molecular proteins

d.

To attach a carboxyl group

e.

To assist the folding of other molecular proteins

19-When we know what kinds of ____ are present in an organic compound, we can predict its chemical behavior.

a.

macomolecules

b.

functional groups

c.

triacylglycerols

d.

enzymes

e.

proteins

20-An amino group is weakly basic and includes a(n) ____ atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

a.

oxygen

b.

sulfur

c.

phosphate

d.

carbon

e.

nitrogen

21-A molecule of a saturated triacylglycerol contains:

a.

alternating single and double bonds between carbons in the fatty acid chains.

b.

the maximum number of double bonds between carbons in the fatty acid chains.

c.

the maximum number of triple bonds between carbons in the fatty acid chains.

d.

the maximum number of hydrogen atoms in the fatty acid chains.

e.

fatty acid chains with both amino and carboxyl groups.

22-Methane, which is composed of carbon and hydrogen, lacks functional groups and is a gas at room temperature. Upon replacing one of the hydrogen atoms with a hydroxyl group, methane is converted to methanol, which is a liquid at room temperature. Explain the reason behind this difference in physical properties.

23-Which lipid can be identified by its isoprene units?

a.

fats

b.

carotenoids

c.

amino acids

d.

phospholipids

e.

Steroids

24-The helical coil shape of an α-helix fibrous protein provides what type of property to that protein?

a.

rigidity

b.

strength

c.

elasticity

d.

heat tolerance

e.

water retention

25-If tyrosine and isoleucine undergo condensation, where does the new bond form?

a.

Between oxygen of the R group and the hydrogen of the amino group

b.

Between carbon of the carboxyl group and the nitrogen of the amino group

c.

Between carbon of the carboxyl group and the hydrogen of the amino group

d.

Between carbon of the carboxyl group and the hydrogen of the R group

e.

Between carbon of the R group and the nitrogen of the amino group

26-Analysis of a certain polymer shows that it contains phosphate groups, ribose groups, and pyrimidines. Based on this information, what statement best describes this compound?

a.

It is RNA.

b.

It is an inorganic compound.

c.

It is a polypeptide.

d.

It is DNA.

e.

It is cylic AMP.

27-What type of protein accelerates the thousands of different chemical reactions that
take place in an organism?

a.

enzyme

b.

amino acid

c.

transport protein

d.

regulatory protein

e.

protective protein

28-Which is a property of unsaturated fats?

a.

They contain more hydrogen than do saturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms.

b.

They have fewer fatty acids per fat molecule than do saturated fats.

c.

They are generally liquid at room temperature.

d.

They are more common in animals.

e.

They have no double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids.

3-Chitin is a polymer composed of N-acetyl glucosamine monomers.
__________________

True

False

30-Which carbohydrate is the most structurally complex?

a.

monosaccharide

b.

phospholipid

c.

monomer

d.

polysaccharide

e.

polymer

31-The following amino acid would be characterized as ____ based on the chemical properties of its side chain.

a.

nonpolar

b.

electrically charged

c.

basic

d.

hydrophilic

e.

acidic

32-Amyloplasts are organelles that store:

a.

lipids.

b.

DNA.

c.

fat.

d.

starch.

e.

protein.

33-Which is an example of a disaccharide?

a.

fructose

b.

ribose

c.

tricylglycerol

d.

glucose

e.

maltose

34-Which description illustrates the tertiary structure of a protein molecule?

a.

three-dimensional shape of an individual polypeptide chain

b.

association of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds

c.

bonding of two amino acids to form a dipeptide

d.

folding of a peptide chain to form an alpha helix

e.

order in which amino acids are joined in a peptide chain

35-Assume that the shaded portions of the molecule in the accompanying figure each represent different polypeptide chains. What does this represent?

a.

an amino acid

b.

a carotenoid

c.

a steroid hormone

d.

cellulose

e.

the quaternary structure of a protein

36-When a nucleic acid undergoes hydrolysis, the resulting subunits are:

a.

fatty acids.

b.

nucleotides.

c.

amino acids.

d.

carotenoids.

e.

monosaccharides.

37-How many electron pairs are shared between carbon 2 and 3 in the accompanying figure?

a.

one

b.

one and a half

c.

two

d.

three

e.

four

38-Which functional group forms bridges to help stabilize a protein’s quaternary structure?

a.

hydroxyl

b.

amino

c.

carbonyl

d.

phosphate

e.

sulfhydryl